Women and HIV/AIDS
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Health care requires careful accurate job in the process of policy implementation. The work here should be precise to understand the successful points of it and the failures. That is why the next stage in the process of policy-making requires tree important steps. The paper will show and analyze all these stages. It will describe the peculiarities of each step and their connection with the topic about women and HIV/AIDS. The paper will explain that the policy making process is not finished on the stage of implementations; it requires more work, more efforts and a lot of analysis.
Keywords: policy, evaluation stage, analysis stage, revision stage, HIV, AIDS.
Health care topics as all others require a serious process of the idea becoming a whole policy. Health care sphere is the one which debates all of the idea on a very serious stage since this sphere concerns everyone and changes in the policy will be implemented in every sphere of the country together with every state of it. Some of the health topics have been ignored even despite the fact that a particular group of people require the special treatment for a long time already. Despite that they receive only violation of their rights. These words are regarded to the topic of Women and HIV/ADS. After this topic had gone through the three main stages which are the formulation, legislation and implementation, it comes close to the second part of the idea becoming a policy. This stage will encompass such processes as evaluation, analysis and revision.
It is widely known that women have been neglected in the process of HIV/AIDS research or various treatments through the history. However, the fact is that the lack of attention towards these health problems causes even more social and economic problems. Health care sphere cannot be the place where social and economic inequities can influence the way of treatment of patients. Since these women were neglected and their rights were violated it cause a serious rise in the number of women dying form HIV/ AIDS and living with it. Moreover, this fact can be proved by the figures. It is already known that the number of women living with this diagnosis at least triples in the period of twenty years. In 1985, there were only 8 percent of women with such a diagnosis and in 2005 their number raised to 26 percent (AMFAR, 1).
The Evaluation Stage
The first stage which is called evaluation requires several steps. Usually, it asks wide-range and deep questions concerning the problems. First of all it is important to understand whether the problem was correctly identified and even whether the correct problem was identified. On our case, the problem was both correctly identified and defined. The topic of HIV/AIDS is constantly increasing which causes biological, social, economical risks. The right of women who are more vulnerable to the virus cannot be violated, and the problem cannot be overlooked being such a risk for the future generation. The next question which should be asked concerns various aspects of the question which might have been overlooked during the process of formulation. In our case, all factors were taken into account, the only thing which might be added it the iportance of making women a priority in the strategies concerning HIV/AIDS. Most of the special needs should be considered, which mean that they will be able to receive the required treatment, care and economic security. Most programs ignore various biological differences or social, economic and even cultural inequities. All this together make women even more vulnerable to HIV/AIDS (AMFAR, 5). We also need a particular attention here for the increasing of the public knowledge in the sphere together with the decreasing of discrimination. Last point which might be improved is increasing of the funding for women-focused HIV/AIDS programs. Sometimes, the sex differences are not taken into account and it is crucial to examine those differences since it helps work on care and treatment programs for them to address women in particular and help them work on and cure according to an accurately captured women-specific data (AMFAR, 5). The next question in the evaluation process concerns whether all important information was collected. In our case, all information was collected and no important data was left out. It is crucial to find all the possible information since it might influence the significance of the topic and the results of the policy-making process. The next question concerns the very recommendations which appeared in the process of idea becoming a policy. All the recommendations have to be properly implemented. All of them might only help solve the problem sooner that is why all of the recommendations have to be considered and applied. The next tow question is already closely connected with the second stage of this policy-making process part. First of all, it is crucial to analyze whether the policy had the desired effect. Our health care problem is very serious. However, since it was neglected many years, people might be ready to change everything at once instantly. For this reason, the first steps are always the hardest. Evaluation is a stage which leads to most changes and revisions in the existing policies. That is practically why evaluation is very closely connected to the analysis stage.
Evaluation experts are those who will work in various govern agencies and public policy analysis firms. They will conduct all the assessments. Usually, these assessments require the examination of all policy actions and effects caused by these actions. However, they also examine the general understanding of the difficulties which are involved in this research. All of the output and outcome measure should be deeply analyzed. This will help evaluate the general success or even failure of the policy. The analysts who are working in the sphere should be very careful because it is difficult to differentiate various spheres of life. For this reason, the process of crediting changes to specific policies requires attention and strictness (Hall). The policy analysis is generally known to take more time than the policy evaluation. It is also important to remember that policy is never directly measurable. Steps in this process are the following. First of all, we have to once again identify the problem and see the public interests and the issues which have been involved. Only after that goes the second step that implements and encompasses the selection of the criteria. We need to determine criteria. It our case it depends on the public women HIV/AIDS interests and rights which are served. The analyst will have to create a special formula to measure equality, medical procedures and treatment and the right protection. It is hard to believe but analysts are really creating special formulas to measure relatively abstract notions. Usually, it is important to choose such criteria for the analysis, as effectiveness, efficiency, productivity, equality, equity, treatment, protection of rights and rehabilitation (O’Connor). The next step requires the system assessment. Here, it is crucial to analyze the boundaries, feedback and the power dynamics. Furthermore, the analysts try to understand whether the boundaries are opened or closed, meaning adaptive to new policies and the readiness of people to change and accept changes. The next step concerns strategies and tactics. The analysis shows the readiness of people to deliver all the required mechanism to their organizations. The last step is the feasibility assessment. It requires the work with the timeline and matrix analysis. Actually all the events are graphically depicted. All of the actions are historically shown in a special matrix. Analysts use such terms as the origin of the initiative, the implementation of the action plan. They set when the program was started, when it was evaluated and calculate the general termination of the program (O’Connor).
The last stage in this policy-making concerns the revision. This stage is very important because it is crucial to revise and improve the policy taking into account the experience and all the evaluation which have been previously done. This practically means that the policy might be expanded or eliminated or even seriously modified. Generally speaking, the policy might require substantive revision or minor revision or update. The first case requires the changes which alter the objective or even the policy intent. It might also require the change the initial policy requirements. The procedures for applying the policy might be change significantly. The worst case is when the initial policy is rewritten and the new one is created on its basis. Thus, this means that it is a new policy and it will have to go through all the processes all again. The other option, as it was already said, is a minor revision. It might require some additions of new definitions which will help to increase the general understanding of the policy statement. Sometimes, it might require the clarifying of some points of the initial policy. The information could be rearranged; the correcting of spelling or punctuation might be done. The implementation procedures can also be changed which will aid the policy statement (Kwarden, 1). However, all the other components are not modified.
HIV/AIDS is relatively new sector, and it requires a lot of efforts and information to protect the rights of women; moreover, provide them with proper treatment and medical care. However, it will help solve the problem not with the help of words but by the real actions. This process consists of three steps. The first one is evaluative and it monitors the work of the policy, and whether the policy was implemented as intended. The second step concerns analysis, which actually shows the problematic moments and the actual problems that appear in the policy implementation. And the last step is revision. This is the process when the policy is slightly modified for a better understanding and flow or where it is totally changed due to failures and the new policy appears.