«Confirmation and Validation of Empiric Knowledge in Practice» - Free Essay Paper

Confirmation and Validation of Empiric Knowledge in Practice

Necessary Resources for Theory-Validating Research Project

The goal of theoretical knowledge is to improve the nursing practice. Confirmation and validation of a theory is necessary to determine whether the theoretic goal is congruent with the goal of sustaining optimal health. For a theory to be confirmed and practiced, the theoretical goals should be aligned with the practical goals. In some cases, judgment may be difficult because of conflicting assumptions about nursing, society, individuals and health. Intended context of the theory should be in line with the practical situation as well. Before making a decision to base their practice on the theory, the team members should explore how well theoretical ideas fit their circumstances. For example, before adopting a pain alleviation theory, carrying out a research to find out what has led to its development is necessary.

An example of a theory-validation research project is examining a theory applied in improving the quality of life of the patients with diabetes. Research methods demand the researcher not to use his hypotheses, beliefs or values, which can affect the primary objective of the data collected. One must have adequate training and resources to conduct a nursing research. Therefore, it will be helpful to work with experienced researchers or have a mentor when taking statistics and research methods courses. They will be helpful in analyzing, evaluating and critiquing published research. In a given research, working with experts in the handling of diabetes disease will provide rather detailed information about the project.

Time, finances and other resources are necessary when conducting the theory –validating research project in a clinical nursing environment. However, these resources are not always available when undertaking a project.

Costs and Resources Needed

Undertaking a project requires substantial resources including money. Therefore, there is a need to have a proposed budget that will address these costs and plan potential funding that an organization should provide. Incurred costs may include human resources and material resources such as advertising and marketing. However, in most cases, the budget is constrained (Titler, 2008). Estimated amount may exceed the amount an organization is willing to give to support the proposed project. After resolving the issues of budget allocation, the project should be financially feasible. In some cases, an organization fully supports the project and thus, there are no budget constraints.

Insufficient Time to Conduct the Research

Conducting research entails significant dedication of time. Timeline is essential in maintaining timely performance of groups/organization and in communicating completion steps. It also helps in organizing the whole project progress from the planning and implementation to evaluation of the practice change. It shows the time length of project completion. Short time frame of the nursing project will help maintain interest and attention. However, when some of the staff have the feeling of doing someone else’s work and not being a part of the nursing process, keeping the project short may be a problem. There is a 27% dropout rate because majority is not able to complete the surveys within the specified time while others due to the time constraints (DiCenso, Guyatt & Ciliska, 2005). Faster results and self-satisfaction obtained from completing a task depend on the time frame of a research project. Short frames give better results.

Lack of Nursing Education Background

A study team composed of nurses, who possess experience in clinical research, should be identified to develop the project. Working with people, who share the same passion, will eliminate the lack of knowledge. It is usually difficult to change the practice and thus, one should do what her/she loves. Wide educational background at a particular nursing unit may be an obstacle when conducting research in any nursing practice. When assigning team members, the key personnel will aid in gathering reliable research data. Their expertise and knowledge will be used to promote the value of evidence-based research. Lack of the expert knowledge may affect the research project negatively. To obtain accurate and detailed information, repetitive education is necessary. However, finding the time and energy becomes an obstacle particularly when the patient care is affected (Beyea & Slattery, 2006). Therefore, the project becomes a second priority. In some cases, lack of education about the research process is usually the problem. Besides, a lack of awareness about a research will lead to the collection of shallow information on the project.

Lack of Administrative Support

Organization that is conducting the research may not be ready for the challenge and therefore, does not provide the support needed. Evidence-based practice consumes a lot of time, work, resources, and effort and thus, having support and resources in the research environment plays a great role (Cullen, 2005). Guides will help rating the strength of the evidence and establish practice guidelines. They also contribute to managing the costs that emerge when running the project.

Theory-validating research project requires a critical strategy approach to ensure that the data is up to date and reliable. Team participants should continuously display a positive attitude to promote nursing research. Sufficient reading and research are required to improve clinical practice of the nurses. Such research should not be done in isolation. Organizations and mentors should assist where necessary, for instance, with the collection of research information or financial support. Building a foundation before launching the project is emphasized to the members involved. Some research projects carried out by nurses help in improving care processes and outcomes hence saving money. However, this depends on whether the research had access to all necessary data and statistics.

Practical Validation Methodologies Might Work in the Various Settings

Nurses play a crucial role in the clinical analysis enterprise. Validating taxonomy for the specialty of clinical research under the guidance of nursing consortium allows comparing the responsibility across settings and defining essential competencies in the development of specialty certification. Clinical experience counts a number of practical validation methodologies hat might work in different settings of the field. Nevertheless, there are other methodologies, which might not function well (Song & Chi, 2007).

Surveys, sampling, descriptive and experimental research and non-randomized design are the best methods under consideration (Butts, 2010). They play a crucial role in analyzing and ensuring that appropriate nursing practices are chosen in the nursing field. Besides, methodologies ensure that the validations are applied in a unique manner.

Considering surveys in the evidence-based practice, nurses can be provided with plenty of information. This information assists them in delivering quality health care to any patient.  A number of studies proves that nurses always express a positive attitude (Butts, 2010). Despite great positive influence, a number of barriers hinder smooth adoption of surveys. Therefore, survey is not the best method in the nursing practice, but it can be considered if situations allow. 

Sampling is another method applied in the nursing evidence practice. The decisions made in sampling are primarily objective of gaining the richest information source that answers the research question. Purposive sampling decisions affect not only the selection of the participants, but also the settings, events, and activities for the collection of data. Individual sampling policies in qualitative research include high variation sampling, stratified sampling and snowball sampling. In terms of the nursing career, it appears to be the best method in different settings.

Descriptive and experimental research of human subjects have crucially advanced the understanding of normal physiology and development, etiology and course of diseases with related disorders, treatment of illnesses and elimination of disability as well as human responses to diseases and changes in health. In the past years, significant strides have been made across the globe towards safe clinical research and ensuring scientific integrity through discussion about acceptable principles of clinical research, governmental regulations and staff training.

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Clinical trials are designed according to the gold standard approach of validating empiric knowledge in practice. In many cases, however, because of the time and expenses needed for prospective trials, the opportunity to test the forecasting ability of clinicians utilizing data from already conducted randomized controlled trials is more feasible and timely option compared to the therapies, for which a clinician is proposed to be predictive. The use of a prospectively designed clinical trial, as opposed to a cohort, is fundamentally essential for retrospective validation as it assures that the patients are treated with the agent for whom the clinician is gifted to be predictive.

In a non-randomized design, it is impossible to isolate any causal effect on therapeutic efficacy from the multitude of other factors that may affect the decision whether to treat a patient. For example, in a study that evaluated the predictive ability of tumor microsatellite instability for the efficiency of fluorouracil-based chemical therapy in colon cancer utilizing a cohort of non-randomly selected patients, the average age of the patients was 13 years younger than the non-treated patients. In turn, this process rendered an unclear meaning of statements concerning the predictive value of the marker.

Retrospective validation, if done in an appropriate manner, can aid in effective and timely treatment of patient sub-groups that may be impossible because of the ethical and logical considerations. Specifically, if retrospective validation can be shown with the help of the data from two independent processes, then there is an evidence of a strong predictive influence.

Advancing new discoveries from bench to bedside is the ultimate goal of clinical and translational research. The paper attempts to provide a comprehensive overview of the designs for predictive validations along with the permanent examples. Although there is no ‘one size fits all’ solution, it is evident that the decision to use particular clinical trial design is influenced by scientific, clinical, ethical and statistical considerations. Besides, like the other disciplines, the health care field is experiencing greater changes because of the extensive research and development activities. Given the nurses play an important role in the healthcare delivery, they have to adapt to new and innovative techniques for the provision of effective and excellent possible treatments to their patients. Hospital management can build a reasonable environment and provide socializing opportunities for the nurses to promote peer-to-peer information for the purposes of sharing it. In addition, hospitals can play a crucial role in the development of basic information skills among the nurses and other practitioners in the medical field.

Maternity in Nursing Practice

Maternity care refers to the safe and high standard treatment of pregnancy and the delivery of a newborn child. It is provided according to the physical and psychological well-being of both the mother and the expected baby since the beginning of pregnancy period, during labor, birthing, prenatal care and postnatal care. It is a very delicate process, which involves numerous regular medical examinations. Nurses providing maternity care ensure that they deliver the service of highest standards to guarantee healthy pregnancy and birth. Therefore, this particular field of nursing practice requires extensive research on the development of fetus since conception, its growth rate and general normalcy as well as the health of the mother, on whose well-being the child depends entirely. Maternity nurses have the obligation to ensure a safe delivery of the baby and a healthy start for the newborn before they can be released. In particular, it is possible several examinations and regular monitoring to confirm that both the mother and the child are safe and healthy.

Despite the general maternity process is natural, there are several complications that accompany pregnancies, which, if not handled early, may lead to fatal consequences for the mother or the child, or both. This is the reason why maternity care is a very crucial task that is held with utmost importance to ensure that patients are safe and healthy. This has prompted scientific and medical research to study the causes of various pregnancy complications to reduce the number of such cases. Some nursing practices are based on the evidence of available records as well as on maternity compliication cases encountered and managed previously (Carpenito-Moyet, 2009). Therefore, maternity nurses practice their medical procedures and services based on such evidences. For instance, a mother, who experiences certain medical complications and has a relative diagnosed with a similar issue, will be treated based on the previous analysis of the same. However, there are certain instances when a pregnant patient has an unfamiliar medical condition that needs urgent research and thus, unaware nurses might be striving to diagnose and solve the problem. This shows that maternity healthcare needs extensive and continuous medical research to prevent the cases that put the lives of a pregnant woman and her child at risk. It also calls for the practice-based evidence from the nurses that pay medical attention to maternity patients in their day-to-day experience. Therefore, theory should be used in combination with nursing experiences to enable the application of efficient medical procedures to ensure the best results.

Butts (2010) state that deliberate confirmation and validation of empiric knowledge in practice involves an assessment of the extent to which empiric knowledge is useful in guiding practice, and that the findings contribute valuable information to the development of empiric knowledge and theory. “Evidence in the form of theory can be used to guide practice” (Cowen & Moorehead, 2011). A number of factors can be used to facilitate the implementation of confirmation and validation of empirical knowledge about maternity healthcare. One of the factors is the difference in the genetic structure of pregnant women, which may show significantly different complications experienced during pregnancies. Women, who give birth to unhealthy or disabled children, may show disparities in their genes relative to their children, which should prompt research to establish such differences. This may initiate research to establish whether it is actually practical and whether anything could be done to reduce the effects of the mother’s genetic structure on the newborn’s health. However, this is very challenging because nurses cannot modify human nature and thus, it is difficult to change the genetic structure of children (Ellis, 1969).

The number of pregnant women, which is usually high, enhances the experiences that maternity nurses come across on a daily basis and thus, helps the research. Different maternity healthcare cases call for different modes of procedures and attention, often involving personal nurse-patient relationships that boost service delivery. Nurses, who attend to a number of pregnant women, share their experiences with the colleagues and doctors, which directly improves knowledge. Shared experience encourages teamwork and the integration of theory and practice, which is one of the best tools to guide research and assist with the implementation of research findings. Although maternity nursing experience is a key to developing new strategies on better service delivery, it can be challenging due to the lack of clear communication and understanding with the patient. There are instances when a maternity nurse might misinterpret the needs of a patient, which will not give any contribution to the intended research. However, experienced nurses, who have previously dealt with different problems, know better how to apply findings from the theory in addition to applying effective measures in different medical cases concerning childbirth. Many nurses engage in both practice and research and they find the experiences rewarding and beneficial (Butts, 2011).

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Moreover, nurses are among the most dedicated practitioners in the medical field, especially maternity nurses, who can personally relate to the condition with their motherly instinct and build strong relationships with their patients. Their experience and connection over the months enable pregnant women to open-up to their caregivers and consequently, help nurses monitor and gather important information about their patients’ health. As a result, maternity nurses are able to systematically apply theory and knowledge to provide efficient healthcare in different situations. However, different personalities of individual patients and their adherence to instructions given by their caregivers can be a challenge. People have different capabilities and characteristics as far as friendship is concerned, and to some pregnant women, whose mood is constantly affected by their condition, it might be difficult to build the connection with the nurses, which hinders effective healthcare provision.

Nursing Diagnosis Criteria

Nursing diagnosis processes are important in helping nurses decipher the state of the patient. Moreover, nursing diagnosis is an imperative component of the nursing process.  The nursing process starts with assessment, which is followed by the diagnosis, outcomes/planning, implementation and evaluation. Nursing diagnosis is the prerequisite for the subsequent processes. In most cases, nurses utilize the information gathered through nursing assessment. Nursing diagnosis is the procedure of making clinical judgment about patient's health status and needs using nursing knowledge and expertise. Therefore, patient’s diagnosis can also be considered a nurse’s reflection of the patient’s health situation and needs. As such assessment determines why the patient is pain, it further establishes the outcome of the disease, such as poor nutrition, anxiety or conflicts with family members. The diagnosis further explores potential future effects of the illness, such as future infections, respiratory conditions, impairment or immobilization of the patient. Thus, the detailed nature of nursing diagnosis provides the basis for nursing care plans. The aim of this report was to develop a new nursing diagnostic procure that would be different from those present in the current taxonomy.

The Importance of the New Diagnosis

The development of the new approach is necessary since the current system cannot function in all nursing settings. Nursing work can be both formal and informal depending on the environment. Most specialists work in specific settings. The environments have different dynamics. Moreover, an extensive range of patients with a wide variety of complications can create challenges. For instance, a nurse working in a remote area will encounter obstacles that are completely distinct from those faced by an ambulance nurse. The new nursing diagnostic approaches should consider environmental peculiarities in order make work in different settings efficient. The following section discusses the parameters that inform the proposed diagnosis.

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