«Motivation at Work» - Free Essay Paper
The leadership responsibilities of every manager include finding the proper ways to motivate employees. They include not only cash or other materialistic incentives. Since every individual has his own personality, the motivational concepts may vary. Thereafter, the objective of the following paper is to discuss how certain motivational concepts can be used in real working situations.
The Equity Theory
This type of theory goes beyond the mere perceptions of individuals, as it takes into consideration other people’s situations in order to make a fair judgment. This theory is about equity awareness that is achieved in a cooperative way. In this respect, people make a judgment whether they are treated fairly or not. It is not related to the size of the exact reward. It is more concentrated on the comparison of inputs and outputs between workers. According to this theory, the motivation is determined not only by money (Businessballs.com, 2014).
The main part of the theory is related to the comparison with others. Thereafter, let us imagine that an employee has been working for a food factory for 10 years as a line operator. Another employee has been working for the same amount of years fr a lower wage (due to the absence of night shifts) as a shift coordinator. The inputs of both workers are similar as they include flexibility, determination, and devotion. Thus, the outputs are different, but the motivation of the shift coordinator is higher. He has a constant possibility to socialize with the management team, attend multiple seminars and trainings, and get a better feeling of achievement and advancement. As a result, the equity theory has proven that comparison is important, and not only money matters.
The Three Needs Theory
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This type of theory is related to the identification of three key needs that should be present in every workplace. They include achievement, affiliation and power that split into the socialized and personalized types (Cheek, 2011).
The scenario that can be applicable to this type of motivational theory might be related to the work of an executive assistant. Despite the fact that this type of position is not the same as the general manager, the employee is still motivated mainly by the three needs theory’s concepts. Thereafter, let us imagine that a woman occupies this position. She gets her own office and enforces the tasks given by the general director. She has the power to control and make sure that all processes run smoothly. Due to her effective leadership skills, she is using a socialized type of power. Her position entitles her to have constant communication with the management team that is related to the need for affiliation. She ensures that the strong friendly relationships have been established in the working team. Moreover, the sense of achievement is obtained when the tasks given by the general manager are accomplished effectively and on time.
The Expectancy Theory
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The individual relates this type of theory to the selection of the behavioral options that can be the most motivational. It is based on the expectancy, instrumentality, and valance (Scholl, 2002).
The example of the situation where an individual is more likely to use this theory can be seen in the companies that work in the recruitment field. If a recruiter has an urge to get extra pay and a promotion, he will more likely adopt the concepts proposed by this theory. He will think that if he manages to recruit more professionals with better payment conditions faster, he will get a promotion. Moreover, if he does his job in an affective manner and at the lower cost for the company, he is more likely to be promoted.
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